September 2022 – The Development of Basketball Players: Current Perspectives and Future Directions

Conclusion: the maturational status of young basketball players should be considered in the formulation of test batteries for talent detection and in long-term development programs to ensure that potential talents are not excluded due to late maturation in relation to their pairs. 

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2022 – Soccer coaches vs. sport science and medicine staff: who can more accurately predict the skeletal age of high-level youth soccer players?

Science and Medicine in Football ;   DOI: 10.1080/24733938.2022.2100461

Ludwig Ruf, Stefan Altmann, Christian Kloss, Sascha Härtel

TSG ResearchLab & TSG 1899 Hoffenheim eV  ;  Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Institute of Sports Science

Conclusion: (N=89, U12 to U16, 12 soccer coaches, 5 sport scientists & medical staff)

Soccer Coaches (SC) were slightly more accurate than the Sports Science and Medicine Staff (SSMS) in prediction of skeletal age (SA). Large Inter-individual variation in SA (up to 5 years within one age group). Moreover, findings suggest that both SC and SSMS equally underestimated and overestimated the SA of early and late maturing players, with poor to moderate inter-rater reliability within age groups… The objective assessment of biological maturity remains an important cornerstone in the routine player monitoring procedure, which might help SC and SSMS alike to optimize talent identification, selection, and development processes.

BAUSport was used as the objective reference for Skeletal Age determination.

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2022 – “Methods for determining growth and biological maturation in junior sports”

Ludwig Ruf, Sascha Hartle et al., 2022, TSG 1899 Hoffenheim Akademie 
TraininGswissenschaft Und -Lehre,  Leistungssport 3/2022, p13

SonicBone (BAUS) can determine the skeletal age using ultrasound. This method was recently validated by independent scientific workgroups as well as in a form of criteria validation against the FELS, G&P and TW2 methods, and also against percentage estimation of adult height method. Many limitations of the traditional X-ray based methods, are overcome by using this ultrasound based BAUS method, so an ongoing and regular assessment of skeletal age in context of growth in sports is made possible”.

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2021 – Construct validity of percentage of predicted adult height (Khamis-Roche method) and  BAUSport skeletal age to assess biological maturity in academy soccer”.

Ludwig Ruf1, Prof. Sean Cumming PhD2, Dr. Sascha Härtel3, Prof. Anne Hecksteden PhD4 , Prof. Barry Drust PhD5, Prof. Tim Meyer PhD6

Conclusion: (N=144) The BAUSport TM system provides a reasonable non-invasive indicator of skeletal maturity that is moderately associated with percentage of predicted adult height derived from the Khamis-Roche method.

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2021 – FC Barca validation study: BAUSport by Sonicbone against Skeletal Age assessment using the Fels, G&P, & TW2 and x-ray based methods

Conclusion: (N=86, Under peer review) The study findings support the use of BAUSport as an alternative, practical and non-invasive methods for the estimation of SA in young athletes. In comparison to the established methods for estimating SA in youth, the BAUSport system performed well and especially in the categorization of youth as advanced, on-time, and delayed in maturation.



2020 – “Biological Maturity Status in Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Comparison of Pragmatic Diagnostics with Magnetic Resonance Imaging”

Daniel Leyhr 1,2 * † , Dennis Murr 1 * † , Lajos Basten3 , Katrin Eichler 3 , Thomas Hauser 4 , Dennis Lüdin5 , Michael Romann5 , Giuseppe Sardo1,4 and Oliver Höner 1

1 Department of Sport Psychology and Research Methods, Institute of Sports Science, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany,

2 Methods Center, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany,

3 Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goethe-University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany,

4 Deutscher Fußball-Bund, Frankfurt, Germany, 5 Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen SFISM, Department of Elite Sport, Magglingen, Switzerland

Conclusion: The results suggest that the use of SAUS, (BAUSport) MOMIR, and PAHKR for measuring BMS is more pragmatic in terms of cost and time as compared with MRI diagnostics. Based on a general agreement between these pragmatic diagnostics and the reference method MRI in all three perspectives, the alternative methods can be used to determine BMS among (male) elite youth soccer players

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2020 – “Bone Age Assessment in Children Using Ultrasound Compared to Hand X-ray  (G&P method)”

Conclusion: (N=260, coming soon) – Bone Age estimated by BAUSport is substantially equivalent to physicians’ Bone Age estimates, for both males and females



2020 – “Evaluation of the BAUSport System (By Sonicbone) for Assessing Skeletal Age in Youth”

Dr Sean Cumming, Professor in Paediatric Exercise Science University of Bath, UK

Conclusion: “In comparison to existing methods, the BAUSport method serves as an equally valid and reliable (if not more) measure of skeletal age (as determined by the Fels x-ray based method)”.

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Santa Casa de São Paulo – School of Medical Sciences Pediatric Endocrinology

 Alvares MA¹; Amaro ML¹; Kochi F²; Sant Ana JP²; Silva TSS¹; Avritchir R³; Kochi C¹; Longui CA¹ Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo ;

1. Pediatric Endocrinology ; MD; 2. Medical Student; 3. Radiology

Hormone  Research in Paediatrics, Vol. 88, Supp 1, 2017, p 111.

Conclusion: (N=494) “There is a significant positive correlation between BAUS and BARx. BAUS is a safe and practical method of bone age determination, with potential clinical applicability”.

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2017 – Bone Age Assessments by Quantitative Ultrasound (SonicBone) and Hand X-ray Based Methods Are Comparable

Marianna Rachmiel MD1,2, Larisa Naugolni MD1, Kineret Mazor-Aronovitch MD2,3, Nira Koren-Morag PhD4 and Tzvi Bistritzer MD1,2

1 Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin Israel

2 Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

3 Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel

4 Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

Conclusion: (N=150) “The radiation-free assessment of bone age in the pediatric population attending endocrine clinics by the BAUS device developed by SonicBone was found to be highly reproducible and comparable to bone age assessed by X-rays based methods with no immediate side effects during usage”.

IMAJ, VOL19, September 2017; Page 2

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2017 – “Evaluating Bone Age and Predicting Young Athletes’ Final Height by a Novel Ultrasound Device (Sonicbone’s BAUSportTM) and their Applications to Talent Selection, Training and Sports Medicine.

Oral presentation by Prof. Yuval Heled PhD at the 8th Asia-Pacific Congress (APCST) on Sports Technology, Tel-Aviv, Israel                                                     

Conclusions: “BAUSportTM can serve as a routine tool for implementation of more scientifically-based programs for training and injury prevention in youth athletes, with better talents selection process for various sports”.

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2016 – “Quantitative Sonometeric (BAUS) Bone Age as a Function of Height and BMI”

Alina German, MD1,  Nira Koren-Morag, PhD2 , Shmuel Levin3 , Prof. Ze’ev Hochberg, MD, PhD4

Conclusion: (N=450) “Shorter and thinner pubertal but not pre-pubertal children have delayed BA as compared to taller and heavier children. ii) The full-length phalanx maturation is affected by height more than the wrist and metacarpals’ epiphyses. iii) The radius-ulna epiphyses are affected by BMI more than the metacarpals and phalanx. iv) These influences have now on to be accounted for in the assessment of a BA.” 

Horm Res Paediatr 2015; 84 P-2-241

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2015 – “On the need for national, racial, or ethnic-specific standards for the assessment of bone maturation“. 

Prof. Ze’ev Hochberg, MD PhD, Eur J Endocrinol. 2015 Sep 28. pii – EJE-15-0673

Conclusion: The notion that genes are the primary determinants of physiognomy, which also includes growth-related traits, has been repeatedly disproved. Based on a fundamental understanding of phenotypic plasticity and an individual’s ability to respond to environmental cues, we do not need ethnic-specific standards for bone maturity.

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